Types of Drug Detox

There are 4 primary types of drug detox available for addicts and alcoholics to achieve the initial stages of sobriety. This includes the cold turkey method, specialized detox centers, medical detox facilities and rapid detox centers. Each type of drug detox has its own benefits and pitfalls that people seeking to recover from addiction should understand before they decide which treatment option is right for them.

Cold Turkey Drug Detox

This type of detox is also called “Uncategorized detox” and essentially consists of an addict or alcohol undergoing the stages of acute withdrawal in a private setting with little or no assistance or care. Unfortunately, the chances of successfully breaking the initial stages of acute withdrawal syndrome are small with this method, and most addicts will return to their drug of choice before they have reached a critical mass in their recovery efforts.

Despite its propensity for failure, quitting cold turkey isn’t dangerous if the substance in question is fairly benign such as marijuana or mild opiate addiction. However, some substance addictions can lead to life-threatening symptoms of AWS in the event of sudden cessation. The three most dangerous of these substances are alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazepines; all of which can lead to seizures, respiratory and/or cardiac arrest, coma and in rare cases, death.

Regardless of the substance of abuse, most experts do not recommend Uncategorized detox as the chances for success are significantly impaired.

Specialized Drug Detox Centers

Specialized detox centers provide inpatient style treatment for up to 2 weeks. Patients receive an initial evaluation which will be used to develop an individualized treatment plan for the duration of their stay. Because of the individual nature of these plans, some detox patients will undergo treatment in just a few days, while others will require a week or two. In many cases these types of detox facilities work in conjunction with longer-term treatment centers that patients can automatically transfer to once they are past the acute stages of withdrawal.

Specialized detox centers work because of the therapies employed – such as individual and group counseling – and because they effectively isolate the addict or alcohol from people, places and things that could be triggers for them to relapse.

Medical Detox

Medical detox is similar to a specialized detox center but with a distinctly medical component. This can consist of an on-site nurse or doctor, 24 hour monitoring and other types of medically-oriented benefits. A medical detox center can also help addicts to step-down their drug usage in an effort to maintain medical safety and reduce or eliminate symptoms of acute withdrawal.

Medical detox is often required by addicts that have relapsed repeatedly, as subsequent attempts to get clean result in more severe withdrawal symptoms that last for a longer period of time. This is referred to as the Kindling Effect and is a very real phenomenon that can make it extremely difficult for people to get clean and stay clean. A medical detox center can address these issues expertly in a safe, relaxed and non-judgmental environment.

Rapid Detox

Rapid detox refers to a type of medical-detox procedure whereby the patient undergoes most of the symptoms of withdrawal while unconscious. This is accomplished by placing the patient into a medically-induced coma, then administering a series of drugs that facilitates and hastens the process of acute withdrawal. This spares most patients the worst of the symptoms and allows them to begin their treatment without the pain and discomfort of a long period of withdrawal.

Unfortunately, rapid detox is a relatively new practice and it’s not well understood yet how successful it is from a long-term treatment standpoint. Addicts considering this method should consult with their primary physician prior to speaking with a detox specialist.

Going through detox in a specialized or medical facility is the best option for most addicts and alcoholics; not only from a safety standpoint, but also because sequestering an addict away from potential exposure to drugs or drug- abuse triggers provides the best chance for lasting recovery.

Find out for yourself by reaching out for help now if you or someone you love is fighting the disease of addiction.

Internet Marketing Strategy

Bayshore is the Internet Marketing solution, providing a complete Internet marketing strategy, promotion of a nationwide advertising. We can help you create a website, get the results or upgrade your existing site’s functionality. Bayshore Solutions can help you effectively combine network marketing, promotional and advertising strategies, customer conversion visitors web design.

Internet marketing is the same as traditional marketing, others are not. Here are seven things you need to know your online marketing is successful. When you write Xu copy, you should take the time to understand what works and what does not. There are two mistakes almost every amateur search engine copywriting.

Successful non-profit organizations use the Internet to market charitable program.

To help companies improve their digital marketing results, I also had in-depth, widely praised and won the AOP Award for best practice, publisher e-consultancy Guide.

Internet marketing is very challenging, and there will be, you need an expert search engine marketing services to beat your competition in the traffic wars. Please consider our search engine optimization company with the help of your project. Free quote service search engine optimization, web design, pay per click advertising, search engine optimization and PPC series, search engine optimization training courses and online brand network analysis.

Internet marketing is still essential to any business’s overall marketing strategy. Mentioned before with all the benefits of internet marketing, people still buy magazines, billboards went out to check to see their mail, watch TV, and shopping. No matter how fast-paced and wide internet of communication, people go out together, talking about going to the gym. Thus, while Internet marketing is absolutely valid and important, demising certain value of the cost of traditional marketing any business, many potential customers. Another thing, when we say that internet marketing, it is not only figures we choose to click on ads. The list also includes security, advertising, advertising social networks, groups, discussion boards and many others. Accordingly, the online marketing activities can effect the number of people exposed. However, one disadvantage is that people started to become one of the, and would even read the advertising information advertising or know (even people in the security list), and delete without opening them. When someone on the Internet, they would like to read / write e-mail, chat with friends, read and post / reply comments, play fun games. As a internet marketing goal is to build a top priority for Internet users. Also, try and spam and unsolicited e-mail and advertising, more and more people away from Internet advertising in general, unless they are some specific content. A variety of Internet marketing strategy is free and paid online marketing can make more money. 12-month Internet Millionaire Review – Russell Brunson is a 12-month millionaire fraud?. As the market one of the most controversial books, and now the Internet millionaire’s 12 months still constitute a major buzz everywhere. A great professional internet marketing make money online. Internet marketing can be a lucrative industry, if some big Internet-related skills and knowledge development to do so successfully. Must also identify and develop the necessary strategies to make money online. Pay per click advertising, online advertising and link exchange programs, is marketing, can be used to make the Internet industry to make money online there are some important programs.

Internet marketing are not the result of a well-defined, integrated internet strategy; rather, they are a response to competitors activities or customers demand. Through the site has existed for more than a year, marketing staff and senior management will Uncategorizedly question its effectiveness. This is usually the point in a coherent Internet marketing strategy needs to become apparent. As a result, starting in the sum of electronic marketing strategy, is when a company’s existing website, which is to review the existing site and its purpose is to improve the effectiveness of the future. There is no evidence that the development and implementation of a strategy to be significantly different approach to electronic marketing. Strategic planning for enterprise development or strategic marketing to comply with the established framework should still be. The framework provides a logical order to follow up to ensure that the strategic focus of all development activities included. It can be said, however, with the e-market strategy for a highly sensitive process of rapid response mode, the events in the market need. Soviet-style five-year planning application does not seem to fit, the best approach is a new process of electronic marketing strategy is a continuous improvement. Check fee (2002) pointed out that e-commerce or e-marketing strategy process models tend to agree with the following features:

There are many ways to market your product using a large number of online with Google AdWords or Yahoo’s Overture advertising network, eBay, members network, cost per click marketing. In addition, there are many second tier cost of sales and earnings per share network. You need to have a good network marketing strategy, using the Internet to provide online marketing tool. With Internet marketing company, will help you to get your website in search engine advertising and optimization services provided by many of the results, but eventually you need to determine what kind of network marketing will give you the best of a product line. It used to be you bought CPM (cost per thousand) in large-scale campaign Web site and hope that the good performance of these ads and get traffic to your website. Now, there are many choices, there is usually a for each event better than the other run. It appears that the use of network marketing the best way to get return on investment cost per click online marketing tool, the strategic point. Google AdWords and Yahoos Overture CPC programs have dominated the world of network marketing in the past two years, they only get bigger and stronger. Network marketing companies have sprung up to help beginners learn how to use AdWords and Overture to the best of their ability to rope. If you want to build a brand, then the cost per click will not be online marketing solutions. Instead of the online brand, you will go to a CPM campaign, is a straight line costs. The targeted ads, and now there’s online advertising spending is due to leave the television and radio have been gradually transferred to the Internet. Why do you want, if you are advertising with the radio or TV, you can actually track the individual results of the work online. We believe that many ad networks and affiliate program will gradually fade out in the next several years, while Google and Yahoo Zhudao even with their own, targeted search results and more per click advertising network. Internet changes quickly, any company want to optimize their online marketing presence needs to adapt and adjust to the latest technology.

Network marketing is the three capacities: transport infrastructure, marketing, application development, marketing methods and permissions. Practical ability of the network in sports marketing when three similar shift manual gearbox, driving a car, both in mechanics.

Internet marketing is the same where you live, because it is a global market.

They do not have banner ads, because they are cheaper than print. In Facebook, because their children that they should be. If you start what you want for your site’s business focus and you concentrate all energy on helping to improve the preliminary results of this goal, Name of the Dong Xi you Keyi try, to see if they are how they work. Or you can look at things, said: “I do not see how it can help me achieve my goal. Now, if you ignore something, it is possible that they will actually become extremely important, and you ‘local employees realize that you
made a mistake. but only the larger error is ignored, since you are overriding, or try to do everything hafway and accomplish nothing.

Network Marketing is not just large budget or the entire company’s IT department. We have developed in Newfoundland and Labrador website, then who can appear in more effective competitors excluded from the market itself. We can do the same for you, to establish an online presence to support your other. This allows you all the seamless integration of marketing activities, you become a better profit growth in your site shooting. With complete Internet marketing strategy and a strong web site design, your company has the potential to become a global player., Kok River, some in Newfoundland and Labrador, or any other parts of the world community, asking them to do, they can help your web site design, as a money-making machines effective. We believe that your answer in Lorne Park and associated companies will seek to get you.

Internet marketing is clear, the next question is usually, “Yes, but where I start?.” For new and existing customers a direct entry point. In the days passed, and when people want to find a business, they turned to the yellow pages. Today, your customers will find you on the Internet, if you are not there, they will turn to the next thing, they did find: 1,

Network Marketing is your competitor doing? How do your competitors in the domestic major search engine rankings? What kind of traffic from their own site? Use the right tools, this valuable information can be found in your competitors.: What is it your product or service for the customer to resolve or do not provide any good? In what ways you can best illustrate this advantage? Clear and consistent information on the positioning of your products in the market based on a solid understanding is very important to all offline and online marketing efforts.: How much money can you get customers and still make a profit? What is each customer, you get the value of life expectancy? This is the answer you need to determine the effectiveness of any network marketing program running on key issues.

Internet marketing is falling over themselves trying to shift dollars from offline to online marketing. I believe the idea is that network marketing will give them better to reduce the U.S. dollar in a tight economic returns. While it is certainly a solid strategy for mobile Internet, it pays to put it a little thought, the first: Verify your infrastructure. Offline dollars in your move to online, to ensure that you can actually use all of the online customer service. Do you have in place of? You can quickly adjust the landing page and website copy? No sense, if you put in to send visitors to a site, sucking money from online advertising. If you are from offline to online money like two weeks to generate a 5:1 return, reducing the Prozac and think twice to come back. The biggest mistake I see their budget, the company’s transformation, is that they think this is a line ‘run and do’ things. Marketers and their bosses think they can create a landing page or start a PPC campaign, and then forget about it for a month. And this cycle works in print or television, it will not work online. Line is highly, highly repetitive, and requires constant attention. So you save a lot of advertising money into the labor force.

Characteristics of network marketing is definitely a good start in the Internet market, but if you do not know how to drive traffic to your site, these things will be wasted.

Search Engine Optimization Senior Account Manager applicants must have at least the search engine optimization, link building, PPC 3 years of experience, and can hit the ground running. Intelligence and ability to work proactively without supervision is necessary, you should be able to work on project management. You also must be able to communicate with customers the highest level of search engine optimization. Sales useful, but not necessary, because this ability is the main strategy and client management role. We are a small busy Swiss institutions and roll up their sleeves and complete the work is essential. The way we work, we are very flexible, but this is a full-time position at our headquarters in Bristol, England, Bristol in the UK so you must be near or on, such as bathing, Swindon, Chelten Burnham, Gloucester.

Internet online marketing experts found in the blog, webmaster forums and online publications. com, where you can learn about the latest Google updates the new method can make money website. Acetylcholine maravilla is the President and Chief Executive Officer powerhomebiz. One on entrepreneurship, in order to step by step information.

Internet marketing is just too numerous to mention in this article. If you access the Internet value-added services, web savvy, you will see how much of this marketing can increase your business type.

Network marketing is online marketing, network marketing, network marketing. Internet marketing is very important, but the madness of growth with social media, I strongly recommend listening skills is to know how to do twitter, Facebook and YouTube. Many marketing media, relying on the three to take home the bacon only. The building is a long list of network marketing, a necessary component of success. List building simply means that a user list, you can communicate regularly via e-mail. In order to start building a list, you first need to establish what is called a capture page. Pages, your visitors will be asked to provide some free gifts, to share their names and e-mail. It can be a free report, e-books, video or presentation software. Many merchants also offer free electronic can receive daily early bird tips and notifications.

In today’s competitive (and noise) market, we must combine all the right online marketing tools, to create a truly effective and comprehensive marketing program. All, of course, is up and around the central site, but to create opportunities, improve customer response, increased brand awareness, the site of the network through a comprehensive marketing strategy, including search engine optimization, PPC, social media tools to support marketing, and so on.

Linked network marketing ideas and technology and business strategy design, development, Internet advertising and marketing. Search engine marketing, email marketing, display advertising, affiliate marketing, display advertising, blog marketing, display advertising, viral marketing. Internet marketing is the media running along the different stages of customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing, search engine optimization in a specific site, e-mail marketing and Web 2, banner ads. Network marketing has become more and more organizations use to promote the network media key and very effective. ‘The establishment of a website’ or ‘promotion site’ is the foundation, but not the basis of network marketing.

Somewhere behind that website is a real goal, the real organization. Internet marketing strategy includes all of the online advertising products and services, including market research, email marketing, websites, and direct sales.

AED – Automatic External Defibrillator

How many chances do you have in your life to save another?

Purchasing an AED (automatic external defibrillator) may seem as simple as purchasing a copier machine, but the choices you make today, may be instrumental in more than just reducing your insurance policy-it may actually save a life.

Just a few short years ago, the very concept of a average person using a defibrillator on a person in cardiac arrest may have resembled a comedy movie. Fortunately today, the advancement of technology has transformed science fiction into everyday convenience. The modern Automatic External Defibrillator is safe to use, simple to operate and portable enough to go anywhere.

With rapid advancement of technology comes explosive opportunities for the marketplace. Entire companies now focus on the manufacturing and sales of this important, life-saving device. With a wide variety of choices, colors, models and prices the uninitiated buyer will most definitely be confused.

Here are the 7 key things you should insist upon when purchasing an Automatic External Defib.

Company

Variety of models. A “one size fits all” isn’t a good strategy. You may only have a single need, but a distributor with a variety of options will be able to custom fit the right device with your organizational needs.

Other medical equipment. On the surface it seems that a company that specializes in AED units would be the logical choice. However, by working with a company that has other medical equipment available, you’ll be working with a supplier for all your needs. Customization with one-stop shopping!

24/7 Support. While shopping may be a daytime activity, your lifestyle may not. Be sure to work with a company that has 24/7 support either by phone or online where you can get your order fulfilled, product tracked and questions answered.

Product

Charging of the unit. What is the shelf life of the unit? How long can it last without be charged? What is the expiration date of the unit?

Accessories. Does the product come with pads compatible for children? Is it wall mounted on in a kiosk? Does the unit come with signage for the unit? Is a storage container included?

Training. Is the unit easy to use. Does it come with English only instructions or can a non-English speaking user easily operate the device? Does it come with a DVD or manual for the owner? Are appropriate compliance documents included?

The value you seek in purchasing a life-saving device must be clearly defined. Getting a good price doesn’t mean the lowest price. There will be more than one good choice of an AED for your organization, but selecting the best one will require you to eliminate those options which don’t fit your needs and working with a company that thinks and acts like you. By purchasing your AED from a supplier with a variety of models, options and prices, you’ll now only be confident you’ve made the right choice for you, but you’ll know that the value you received is 2nd to none. Be wary of discounts in parachutes, insurance and defibrillator’s. The life you save, could be your own.

The ABT Sportsline Audi R8 Super Car Tuning Program

The Audi R8 has been one of the most anticipated and sought-after cars since it was first introduced by the German automaker during its tour of the world auto shows in 2006. Its sleek lines, and modern design paired with its incredible performance makes it a very competitive model in the exotic car marketplace, while its mid-engined layout and two factory engine options provide the perfect platform for a super car tuning program. The team at ABT Sportsline has developed a range of upgrades that are designed to build upon the factory platform and increase performance dramatically for the German sports car. The range of modifications includes engine tuning, chassis and suspension modifications, aerodynamics, and new wheel and tire options.

One of the most important parts of the super car tuning program by ABT Sportsline for the Audi R8 is the engine upgrade enhancements. Both the 4.2-liter V8 and 5.2-liter V10 engines can be upgraded with a host of modifications. Items that are individual but unique to each engine type include racing air intakes with carbon fiber construction, lightweight stainless steel exhaust systems with racing catalytic converters, sport air filters, new spark plugs, and also carbon fiber engine covers. New ECU software tunes that were engineered by ABT Sportsline optimize the ignition, timing, fuel injection delivery, and other parameters to produce a wider power band with a higher overall output of horsepower and torque. For customers that want an extreme super car tuning program for the Audi R8, the German aftermarket company can install a new supercharger system that will drastically increase power output.

In addition to the engine super car tuning program, the Audi R8 4.2 and R8 5.2 can be outfitted with a range of aerodynamic options that optimize downforce and drag. Upgrades range from new front spoilers and air intakes, side skirts, extended fenders, new rear bumpers and diffusers, and trunk lid spoilers. The increase in downforce helps to improve high-speed stability and handling for better performance on the race track.

There are many chassis options available from ABT Sportsline for both Audi R8 models. The factory suspension can be modified with new coilover setups with adjustable damping, camber, and ride height settings or sport springs for better handling dynamics. New brake systems can range from carbon ceramic to steel rotors with larger six- and four-piston calipers at the front and rear axles. New ABT Sportsline DR and CR lightweight alloy wheels with corresponding high performance tires can be installed for better grip and traction.

All of the new products for the Audi R8 super car tuning programs are currently available from ABT Sportsline and can be purchased as a package if customers choose to do so.

Windscreen Essentials

A windscreen’s or a windshield’s main function is to serve as a wind and debris cover for people inside and sometimes even supports the vehicle’s frame. Manufacturers configure the screens aerodynamically to not affect the vehicle’s performance. Some even have special substances integrated into them to protect the eyes of the passengers from UV rays. Without windshields, a driver can have difficulty controlling the vehicle. Here some things you need to know in taking care of your windscreens.

Causes of Damage

There are different reasons for your vehicle’s windshield to crack. Here are some of the most common ones:

– Direct Collision: This is the number one cause of shield cracks in road travel. There are small particles and debris that may be invisible to the eye due to your speed in highways. These particles can be gravel, tiny rocks and stones. A car in front of you can propel a small stone strong enough the chip the windscreen glass. The cracks leave room for moisture to accumulate and spread the cracks to the whole windshield gradually.

– Structural Flaw: This reason comes with the vehicle’s old age. When manufacturers make windshields, they unconsciously create weak points at the glass edges. This is because the particles at the edge have no stable gripping. Additionally, builders designed the middle part of the glass to stretch and absorb shock while the edges endure the heavy load.

– Cold Weather: The windscreen reacts to temperature whether it is hot or cold. The difference between the outside and inside temperature can cause distortions to the class that lead to small cracks.

– Hail Storm: Although these events are rare. A windshield suffering damage from a hailstorm renders it to be irreparable.

The small fissures that these factors can cause are unnoticeable. It can make the fracture spread, however, if unaddressed, causing danger to the passengers.

Dangers of Cracks

The most apparent drawback of having cracked windscreens is reduced visibility. One cannot drive without proper vision thus this proves very dangerous to anyone riding the vehicle. Additionally, if the damage becomes significant, the car’s structure might fail, causing the front of the vehicle to cave in unsuspecting passengers. It can also cause the airbags not to release properly, turning simple injuries to fatal ones. windscreen repair is important to continue using the vehicle.

Repairing the Dent

You can buy windscreen repair kits that you can actually use to repair the damage yourself. Bear in mind that these kits are good only for one-time use and may not be applicable to older cracks so repair the dents as soon as you notice them. Be mindful that these kits provide repair for inch long fractures, not the ones that cover the windshield already. Clean the screen before you try to apply the repair kit. Using it on a surface full of dirt and debris can make the resin less effective. Inspect the repair when you are done to make sure you did it correctly.

Installing a New One

There are times when windscreen repair are no longer possible. You can purchase quality windshield glasses from certain dealers but be sure not to do the installation by yourself.

Immediate Cash Loans – Ravel the Abstruse Fiscal Problems

Immediate cash loans are another name for unsecured and short term loans that are endowed to those people, who are in urgent need of money to ravel the abstruse fiscal problems. These financial helps are immediately approved and some of them are even managed for the financial victim individuals within a very short span of time. Hence, people can take care of their adverse standings without any hindrance. Lenders always come up with these loans to help the needy people in dire straits. They do not check past and current credit history of the borrower because they work on focus of dealing out the best financial helps to the borrowers to meet various fiscal requirements.

Lenders have arranged immediate cash loans for both good creditors and bad creditors because there is no credit check procedure. In actual fact, these loans are available in unsecured forms that enable people to acquire immediate money without pledging any collateral as security against the loan. Thus, people are scared to avail the standard loans because of losing their collateral; they can consider cash loans the best to carry out their financial needs.

With the succor of these loans, the applicants can derive a loan amount up to £1,500 that is sufficient to unsnarl all complicated fiscal problems. These finances are quite popular throughout UK because immediate cash loans not only help you in your pressing needs but also assist you ameliorate your poor credit records so that you might fetch instant money hereafter based on your improved credit records.

Even if you want to acquire these loans without any trouble, the best way is to apply via online mode. There are so many online lenders who deal out loans at quite comparatively low interest rate together with delightful reimbursement terms and conditions. Just make a systematic analysis so as to get your hands on an amazing and delightful loan deal. As a matter of fact, you must vigilantly exam the loan terms and conditions so that you might keep yourself sage and sound from any hurdle hereafter.

Legal Requirements For Internet Marketing

What is required to do business on-line? How complex is it to start and run an Internet business opportunity?

Unfortunately, the answer is that it depends. An on-line retail business can have complicated legal requirements associated with it like licensing, sales tax collection and reporting regulations.

On the other hand an Internet marketing business can be a very simple and direct path to follow to own a web based entrepreneurial activity.

For the purposes of this article, let’s examine the world of affiliate marketing since it can produce an income stream with minimal up front costs and very little regulation.

Representing the products of others requires no stock, no shipping, no sales tax issues and no reporting requirements.

Products are offered and sold through independent entities like Click Bank where any affiliate marketer can register, pick products to market and collect commissions.

Under such circumstances, the producer is responsible for product shipping and the Click Bank like operation processes the sale for the customer as well as sends out the commission to the marketer along with the profit to the producer.

The Click Banks keep all of the necessary records of the transactions, issue the checks or wires and provide the year end reporting for tax purposes. In other words, much of the busy work required of any small business person is supplied basically free of charge to the marketer. Hard to beat that kind of deal.

At the end of the day, there is not much required of the business person who operates as the affiliate marketer. However, there is some wisdom in doing the following.

To be in business, be a business. Form an entity of some type. You can choose to be a Sole Proprietor or even a Corporation. The details of such choices are not to be addressed here but it is easy enough to research the pros and cons of each as well as get advice from professionals like a CPA.

Entity formation has a lot to do with paying state and federal income taxes which, as we all know, are legally unavoidable. When registering with the Click Bank type operations a marketer is required to supply either their social security number or the tax ID number of their company. There is no escaping the long arm of the tax man since income will be reported for you.

Beyond that there is little else the law requires other than the possibility of a business license that your local government might want. That can easily be checked out by a call to your local Chamber of Commerce.

Thus affiliate marketing can get you into business for very little up front expense and can begin generating income almost immediately. More significantly, as you become a better marketer and expand the number of products you represent, that income stream can grow exponentially.

Because the trend in business start ups is increasingly toward doing business on-line, it would seem that the smart and easy way to launch would be with affiliate marketing. It represents the classic low risk, high reward business model that most every business person seeks.

Beyond that, it is the kind of business that can be started in one’s spare time so that current income sources can remain undisturbed, at least in the short run. Should the affiliate marketing business grow to the point of providing a sustainable income, it can than become a full time focus.

With little legal red tape to deal with and not much investment required, affiliate marketing provides the first and arguably the most important step into the world of doing business on the Internet. The link below is provided to showcase one such first step opportunity. You are invited to take the time to review the world of being an affiliate marketer.

After all, it might just be a glimpse into the future of your own on-line business.

Fixing Solutions for Automotive Industry

Automotive industry demands high strength fasteners and precision components such as nuts, bolts, studs, screws, rivets, tie rods, shims etc. that are applied to various parts and components to hold and connect two or more surfaces or objects together in a structure.

Automotive industry uses fixing components coming in a huge variety of materials ranging from common steel to aluminum, brass, copper, titanium and plastic to other exotic materials. Choosing the material to manufacture these fixing components is essential due to difference between each material’s strength, corrosion resistance, brittleness, galvanic corrosion properties, and of course cost. Materials are basically selected on considerations of environment, corrosive or thermal extremes, magnetic properties, weight, re usability, stresses, and expected life time.

Depending on these specifications materials are classified into grades & quality standards to produce specific quality alloy mixtures that are then used to produce the fixing components. In addition to this, materials are further processed through a variety of coating, plating and hardening processes to form different specified grades of the alloy mixtures.

The various stages to enhance the metal corrosion resistance and appearance increase the cost of production that leads to expensive parts and fixing components. To keep costs within control, it is always advisable to use standardized materials. As specifying the material with specific chemical analysis adds time & cost to the whole process of manufacturing of fixing components. In a common practice, using standard materials only needs heat treating, cold working and coating to manufacture ready to use fixing components.

Quality is the primary concern for every manufacturing process and hence in order to manufacture high quality fixing tools and apply best industry practices that ensure timely deliverables, companies apply quality control methods such as computerized statistical process control archival documentation and various other approaches.

Inspection process involves utilizing tri-roll gages, hardness testers and optical comparators to ensure optimum performance. Automated sorting technologies are applied for assurance of contaminant free product for use in automated feeding equipment. Other than this, third party inspection, verification and certifications testify quality process on the go.

Used in a variety of application areas, replacing fasteners is quite tedious. It is generally best to match them while replacing. Replacing a bolt or screw with a stronger one is always now a good practice as harder bolts tends to be more brittle and may not work for specific applications. In some environments, applying galvanic corrosion methodology may result better.

Chase Business Cash Rewards Credit Card – One Card for All Your Business Expenses

The Chase Business Cash Rewards Card is a Visa cash back rewards card issued by Chase Manhattan Bank and is ideal for people with excellent credit looking to consolidate business related expenses with one credit card and planning to utilize the rebate program to the maximum. Based on the FICO score recommendation, you should have a great or nearly perfect credit record. A FICO score of at least 764 is recommended for a higher chance of approval for the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card, but is not required. You will generally require your basic business information, including your Federal tax I.D. number and telephone and permanent address when you apply for this card.

The introductory APR is as low 0.00% for 6 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers and that too without any annual fee. Though it depends on your credit history and varies from 5.99% to 9.99% added to the prime rate, 14.99% being the regular APR. However, once the introductory rate expires, the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card does have an above average interest rate for purchases and balance transfers.

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Planning and Design of Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

Behavioral Healthcare Facilities: The Current State of Design

In keeping with most districts of healthcare, the marketplace has seen a boom in the construction of Behavioral Healthcare facilities. Contributing to this increase is the paradigm shift in the way society views mental illness. Society is placing a heavier value on the need to treat people with serious addictions such as alcohol, prescription and elicit drugs. A large percentage of people suffering from behavioral disorders are afflicted with both mental and addictive behaviors, and most will re-enter communities and either become contributors or violators.

These very specialized facilities do not typically yield the attention from today’s top healthcare designers and their quantity accounts for a small fraction of healthcare construction. However, Behavioral Healthcare projects are increasing in number and are being designed by some very prominent architectural firms such as Cannon Design and Architecture Plus. Many are creating state-of-the-art, award-winning contemporary facilities that defy what most of us believe Behavioral Healthcare design to be.

Changing the Way We Design Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

As with all good planners and designers, A+D (along with facility experts) are reviewing the direct needs of patient and staff while reflecting on how new medicine and modern design can foster patient healing rates, reduce environmental stress, and increase safety. This is changing the face of treatment and outcome by giving the practitioner more time to treat because they require less time and resources to “manage” disruptive patient populations.

The face of Behavioral Healthcare is quickly changing. No longer are these facilities designed to warehouse patients indefinitely. And society’s expectations have changed. Patients are often treated with the belief that they can return to their community and be a contributor to society. According to the National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems (NAPHS), depending on the severity of illness, the average length of stay in a Behavioral Healthcare facility is only 9.6 days.

What has changed?

Jaques Laurence Black, AIA, president and principal of New York City-based daSILVA Architects, states that there are two primary reasons for the shortened admission period:

1. Introduction of modern psychotropic drugs that greatly speed recovery

2. Pressures from insurance companies to get patients out of expensive modes of care

To meet these challenges, healthcare professionals are finding it very difficult to effectively treat patients within the walls of antiquated, rapidly deteriorating mental facilities. A great percentage of these facilities were built between 1908 and 1928 and were designed for psychiatric needs that were principled in the belief to “store” not to “rehabilitate.”

Also impacting the need for Behavioral Healthcare construction is the reluctance of acute-care facilities to provide mental health level services for psychiatric or addiction patients. They recognize that patient groups suffering from behavioral disorders have unique health needs, all of which need to be handled and treated only by very experienced healthcare professionals. This patient population also requires a heightened level of security. Self-harm and injuring staff and other patients are major concerns.

The Report of the Surgeon General: “Epidemiology of Mental Illness” also reports that within a given year about 20% of Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder and 5.4% suffer from a serious mental illness (SMI ) – defined as bipolar, panic, obsessive-compulsive, personality, and depression disorders and schizophrenia. It is also believed 6% of Americans suffer from addiction disorders, a statistic that is separate from individuals who suffer from both mental and addiction disorders. Within a given year it is believed that over one-quarter of America’s population warrants levels of mental clinical care. Even if these statistics were cut in half, it cannot be denied as a serious societal issue.

With a growing population, effectively designing in accordance with such measures is at the heart of public health.

Understanding the Complexity of Behavioral Healthcare Design

Therefore, like Corrections, leading planners and designers specializing in Behavioral Healthcare are delving deeper to better understand the complexity of issues and to be the activist to design facilities that promote treatment and healing – and a safer community.

The following is a list of key design variables that are being studied and implemented:

1. Right Sizing

2. Humanizing Materials and Color

3. Staff-Focused Amneties and Happiness

4. Security and Safety

5. Therapeutic Design Tenants

Right-sizing

Today’s Behavioral Healthcare facilities are often one-story single buildings within a campus size. Often debated by Clients due to costs, this design preference is driven by the demand for Uncategorized light, window views to nature for all patient areas, and outdoor open-air gardens “wrapped” within. All of this provides soothing qualities to the patient, reduces their anxieties, counteracts disruptive conduct and helps to reduce staff stress.

“When you look at the program mix in these buildings, there’s a high demand for perimeter because there are a lot of rooms that need Uncategorized light. Offices, classrooms, dining areas, community rooms, and patient rooms all demand Uncategorized light, so you end up with a tremendous amount of exterior wall, and it forces the building to have a very large footprint.” – James Kent Muirhead, AIA, associate principal at Cannon Design in Baltimore

These design principles are also believed to improve staff work conditions. Unlike a multi-story complex, at any moment staff can walk outdoors and access nature, free from visual barriers, and within a building that more accurately reflects building types that both patients and staff would encounter in their communities.

In addition to right-sizing for the overall building footprint, is right-sizing for internal patient and staff support area. Similar to the move we have seen in Corrections to de-centralize support spaces, Behavioral Healthcare is moving to decentralized nursing/patient units called “neighborhoods.” With mental health facilities there is a large concern with distances and space adjacencies in relation to the patient room and patient support areas such as treatment and social spaces. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, Troy, NY, advocates neighborhoods that average 24-30 beds arranged in sub-clusters, called “houses”, of 8-10 beds. Thus, each neighborhood consists of three houses. Often these layouts will include a common area where patients congregate and socialize, with a separate quiet room so patients can elect to avoid active, crowded areas. In addition Pitts states, “There’s a move away from central dining facilities. So, while facilities will still have a central kitchen, it’s a whole lot easier moving food than it is patients.” However, it is important for the facility to mimic normal outside daily life routines, so patients are encouraged to frequently leave their neighborhoods to attend treatment sessions, and outdoor courtyards.

Humanizing Materials & Color

In all facilities that play a role in rehabilitation, design strives to create spaces that humanize, calm, and relax. Behavioral Healthcare patients need to feel that they are in familiar surroundings; therefore, the architectural vocabulary should feel comfortable and normal. Since these facilities are about rehabilitation (when possible) and encouraging patients to merge back into society, the facility should feel like an extension of the community. Their spaces should reflect the nature and architecture of the surrounding region and thus so, no two facilities should look too much alike.

“Our a
pproach to designing these facilities is to view the facility as an extension of the community where patients will end up when they’re released. Interior finishes also depend on geography because you want to replicate the environment patients are used to. You want to de-stigmatize the facility as much as possible.” – Tim Rommel, AIA, ACHA, OAA, principal with Cannon Design in Buffalo, NY.

Therefore, materials and colors within these spaces want to feel familiar to one’s region and everyday life. To soothe the psyche and rehabilitate, they want to feel soft and comfortable, yet visually stimulating. An interior that is overly neutral or hard in appearance is not appropriate. Materials should reduce noise, and colors should lift the spirit. This can help to create an environment in which the patient can learn, socialize, and be productive while easing anxieties, delivering dignity, and modifying behavior. As stated previously, behavioral studies advise the use of softer interior materials-like carpeting, wood doors and tile. Doing so translates directly to both patient and staff well-being, particularly staff safety, and makes for a nicer place to work. In addition, staff have more resources to “treat” instead of manage heated situations. When staff experiences are eased and satisfied, morale is boosted and life-saving rules and policies are more likely to be enforced.

Staff-Focused Amenities & Happiness

While reducing staff stress and fatigue through a healing supportive environment seems like an obvious goal, there are relatively few studies that have dealt with this issue in any detail. More attention has been given to patient outcomes. However, many leading hospitals that have adopted therapeutic tenants into their newly built environments have seen vast improvement through their “business matrixes” and financial reporting.

In one example, the Mayo Clinic, a national leader in implementing healing design in its facilities, has reported a reduction of nursing turnover from a national annual average of 20% to an annual 3%-4%. In another example, when Bronson Methodist Hospital incorporated evidence-based design into its new 343-bed hospital, they cited their 19%-20% nurse turnover rate dramatically dropped to 5%.

Now, both the Mayo Clinic and Bronson Methodist Hospital have had to initiate a waiting list for nursing staff seeking positions. This converts to better-trained and qualified staff, and a reduced error rate. Therefore, more health facilities are investing in staff support areas such as lounges, changing rooms, and temporary sleep rooms. Within these staff spaces and in the hospital throughout, facilities are also recognizing the need for upgrade materials, better day lighting, and an interesting use of color: One soon realizes that the need of patients and staff are interwoven, each impacting positively or negatively the other.

Security & Safety

Without debate, self harm and harm to staff is one of the biggest concerns mental health facilities manage. Often the biggest safety and security concern is the damage patients can do to themselves. “There are three rules I had drummed in me,” says Mark Hanchar; Director of Preconstruction Services for Gilbane Building Company, Providence, R.I. “First, there can’t be any way for people to hang themselves. Second, there can be no way for them to create weapons. Third, you must eliminate things that can be thrown.” Hanchar says that the typical facility is, “a hospital with medium-security prison construction.” This means shatter proof glass, solid surface countertops (laminate can be peeled apart), stainless steel toilets and sinks (porcelain can shatter), push pull door latches and furniture that cannot be pulled apart and used as a weapon. These are just to name a few.

Additionally, removing barriers between patients and nursing staff is a safety consideration. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, says what may be counter-intuitive for safety precautions, “Glass walls around nursing stations just aggravate the patients.” Removing glass or lowering it at nursing stations so patients can feel a more human connection to nurses often calms patients. There is also discussion of removing nursing stations altogether; decentralizing and placing these care needs directly into the clinical neighborhoods and community spaces. Pitt says, “The view is that [nursing staff] need to be out there treating their patients.”

Therapeutic Design Tenants

As medicine is increasingly moving towards “evidence-based” medicine, where clinical choices are informed by research, healthcare design is increasingly guided by research linking the physical environment directly to patient and staff outcomes. Research teams from Texas A&M and Georgia Tech sifted through thousands of scientific articles and identified more than 600 – most from top peer-reviewed journals – to quantify how hospital design can play a direct role in clinical outcomes.

The research teams uncovered a large body of evidence that demonstrates design features such as increased day-lighting, access to nature, reduced noise and increased patient control helped reduce stress, improve sleep, and increase staff effectiveness – all of which promote healing rates and save facilities cost. Therefore, improving physical settings can be a critical tool in making hospitals more safe, more healing, and better places to work.

Today’s therapeutic spaces have been defined to excel in 3 categories:

1. Provide clinical excellence in the treatment of the body

2. Meet the psycho-social needs of patients, families, and staff

3. Produce measurable positive patient outcomes and staff effectiveness

Considering the cost of treating mental illness, which is exceedingly high, and wanting facilities to have effective outcomes, a further practice of incorporating therapeutic design is increasing. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIM H) approximated in 2008 that serious mental illnesses (SMI ), costs the nation $193 billion annually in lost wages. The indirect costs are impossible to estimate.

The estimated direct cost to clinically treat is approximately $70 billion annually and another $12 billion spent towards substance abuse disorders. In addition to the increased need of care and the boom in Behavioral Healthcare construction, it becomes an obligation to make certain that we as facility managers, architects, designers and manufacturers therapeutically plan and design these facilities.

Notably, in 2004, “The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital for the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity,” published by Roger Ulrich P.H.D., of Texas A&M University, was released. In a culmination of evidence-based research, research teams found five design principles that contributed significantly to achieving therapeutic design goals.

The report indicates five key factors that are essential for the psychological well-being of patients, families and staff, including:

1. Access to Nature

2. Provide Positive Distractions

3. Provide Social Support Spaces

4. Give a Sense of Control

5. Reduce or eliminate environmental stress

Access to Nature

Studies indicate that nature might have the most powerful impact to help patient outcomes and staff effectiveness. Nature can be literal or figurative – Uncategorized light, water walls, views to nature, large prints of botanicals and geography, materials that indicate nature and most importantly, stimulating color that evokes nature. Several studies strongly support that access to nature such as day-lighting and appropriate colorations can improve health outcomes such as depression, agitation, sleep, circadian rest-activity rhythms, as well as length of stay in demented patients and persons with seasonal affective disorders (SAD).

These and related studies continue to affirm the powerful impact of Uncategorized elements on patient recovery and stress reduction. Thus, it is clea
r that interior designs which integrate Uncategorized elements can create a more relaxing, therapeutic environment that benefits both patients and staff.

Positive Distractions

These are a small set of environmental features that provide the patient and family a positive diversion from “the difficult” and, in doing so, also negate an institutional feel. These can be views to nature, water walls, artwork, super imposed graphics, sculpture, music – and ideally all of these want to be focused on nature and, when applicable, an interesting use of color. Therapeutic environments that provide such patient-centered features can empower patients and families, but also increase their confidence in the facility and staff. This helps with open lines of communication between patient and caregiver.

Social Support Spaces

These are spaces designed partially for the patient but mainly for the comfort and socialization of family members and friends of the patient; therefore, family lounges, resource libraries, chapels, sleep rooms and consult rooms all play a role. When family and friends play a key role in a patient’s healing, these spaces encourage families to play an active role in the rehabilitation process.

Sense of Control

In times when patients and family feel out of control, it is very healing for the facility design and staff to provide it back when appropriate. Although, this cannot always be done suitably in mental healthcare facilities. However, when applicable, these design features include optional lighting choices, architectural way-finding, resource libraries, enhanced food menus, private patient rooms and

optional areas to reside in. A few well-appointed studies in psychiatric wards and nursing homes have found that optional choices of moveable seating in dining areas enhanced social interaction and improved eating disorders. When patients feel partially in control of their healing program and that the building features are focused to them, an increased confidence of the quality of care enters and tensions lower.

As with all therapeutic design, this allows the caregiver to use their resources healing in lieu of “managing” patient populations.

Reduce or Eliminate Environmental Stress

Noise level measurements show that hospital wards can be excessively noisy places resulting in negative effects on patient outcomes. The continuous background noise produced by medical equipment and staff voices often exceeds the level of a busy restaurant. Peak noise periods (shift changes, equipment alarms, paging systems, telephones, bedrails, trolleys, and certain medical equipment like portable xray machines are comparable to walking next to a busy highway when a motorcycle or large truck passes.

Several studies have focused on infants in NIC Us, finding that higher noise levels, for example, decrease oxygen saturation (increasing need for oxygen support therapy), elevate blood pressure, increase heart and respiration rate, and worsen sleep. Research on adults and children show that noise is a major cause of awakening and sleep loss.

In addition to worsening sleep, there is strong evidence that noise increases stress in adult patients, for example, heightening blood pressure and heart rate. Environmental surfaces in hospitals are usually hard and sound-reflecting, not sound-absorbing causing noise to travel down corridors and into patient rooms. Sounds tend to echo, overlap and linger longer.

Interventions that reduce noise have been found to improve sleep and reduce patient stress. Of these, the environmental or design interventions such as changing to sound-absorbing ceiling tiles, are more successful than organizational interventions like establishing “quiet hours.”

Conclusion and Additional Information

The information contained in this excerpted report is intended as a guide for architects, specifiers, designers, facility planners, medical directors, procurers, psychologists and social workers which have a stake in providing improved facilities for behavioral healthcare patients. It is a portion of a report entitled “The Contributions of Color” authored by Tara Hill, of Little Fish Think Tank. Ms. Hill was commissioned by Norix Group Inc., in 2010 to research the role color plays in the safe operation of correctional facilities and behavioral health centers. More in-depth information specifically about the psychological influence of color and behavioral healthcare facility design can be found by reading the full report.